Starling murmuration guide: why and when they happen and best places to see one in the UK

If you're out in the countryside during autumn and winter, look out for one of nature's most breathtaking sights as huge numbers of starlings take to the skies, moving as one. Our expert guide explains the science behind starling murmurations and the best places to see a starling murmuration in the UK.

Pier at sunset
Published: November 2nd, 2021 at 10:45 am
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The sight of thousands of birds swooping overhead in perfect formation is an incredible wildlife phenomena to witness. Taking place at dusk and early evening in the autumn and winter months in the UK, this is an event people of all ages can enjoy as no special equipment is needed.


Our murmuration guide explains what a murmuration is, the science behind them and the best places to see starling murmurations in Britain.

What is a murmuration?

It’s been called the greatest wildlife spectacle in Britain and is remarkable to witness. Studies suggest that starlings congregate in these remarkable ‘murmurations’ to deter possible predators, which are confused by the swirling masses. Despite a recent drop in their overall population, you can still witness the mesmerising sight of thousands of birds performing their aerial dance at dawn and dusk.

Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, single bird standing on sea weed, Lothian, Scotland, winter 2009
It is thought that starlings group together to confuse predators. /Credit: Getty Images

What is the science behind starling murmurations?

The winter months are the best time to witness a starling murmuration – but what is science behind these mass groupings of birds? Why do starlings group together? And how do they not crash into each other? Jess Price from the Sussex Wildlife Trust explains the science behind starling murmurations.

This incredible wildlife spectacle, known as murmuration, has interested scientists for years. Questions, such as why these great congregations occur and how starlings know when to turn in unison without colliding, have been the subject of much debate.

Ham Wall reserve in Somerset is a popular spot for birders. /Credit: Getty Images

Why and how does a murmuration happen?

Starlings have extremely fast reaction times and can make changes in their flight direction in a split second. It is now generally thought that flocking helps to protect the starlings from predators. We all know the old saying that there’s safety in numbers.

Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) flock flying over lake, Wales, United Kingdom
Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) flock flying over lake, Wales, United Kingdom.

Put simply, the more starlings there are in a flock the smaller chance each individual has of being caught by an airborne predator. Studies have even shown that individual starlings move around within the flock and try to minimise their time on the edge where they are most vulnerable.

They are gregarious birds, living in flocks for much of the year. But it is in winter, when starling numbers are boosted by migrant birds from colder parts of Europe that these aerial displays are at their breath-taking best.

From November to February, this amazing sight can be seen across Sussex and the rest of the UK. Brighton and Eastbourne are well known for their dramatic displays, but other costal towns such as Bognor, Chichester and Hastings can occasionally host magnificent displays too. Elsewhere in the country spectacular displays are regularly seen over the Somerset Levels, Gretna Green, Blackpool Pier and the Fens of Cambridgeshire.

Starling numbers have declined by 60% in the past 50 years. /Credit: Getty Images

How starling numbers have declined in the UK

Although most murmurations look enormous, these annual flocks are actually quite small compared to what they used to be. In the UK, starling numbers have declined by over 80% in the last 50 years causing this species to be red listed as a bird of high conservation concern.

It is likely that this population crash is due to the shortage of food and nesting sites that comes with more intensive agriculture, increased urban development and the reduction of outbuildings and open eaves on houses.

Where to see a starling murmuration in the UK

Fancy going to watch a starling murmuration near you? Here is a selection of places in Britain where starlings are known to roost. 


West Pier Brighton, Sussex

Sunset at the West Pier, Brighton with a starling murmuration in full swing
40,000 birds congregate at West Pier. /Credit: Getty Images
Perhaps the most famous starling murmuration in Britain takes place around the skeletal, derelict West Pier on Brighton’s stony seafront. Up to 40,000 birds arrive from as far away as Scandinavia to winter alongside their native cousins on the pier.

Gretna Green, Dumfries and Galloway

Gretna Green, Dumfries and Galloway. /Credit: Walter Baxter/Geograph

There was a time when only eloping couples flocked to Gretna Green on the English/Scottish border. Nowadays, it’s the aerial visitors that attract most attention, with magical displays of up to 50,000 birds.


Ham Wall, Somerset

Murmuration at dusk fills sky with huge numbers of birds at Ham Wall National Nature Reserve in Somerset, UK
Murmuration at dusk fills sky with huge numbers of birds at Ham Wall National Nature Reserve in Somerset ©Getty

RSPB Ham Wall on the Avalon Marshes (pictured) is a starling hotspot. Thousands of birds – many of which migrate from the colder climates of Northern Europe – congregate in the roadbeds overnight.


Leighton Moss, Lancashire

Nature reserve
Leighton Moss Nature Reserve (Getty Images)

The skies above the bittern-haunted reedbeds of RSPB Leighton Moss near Silverdale turn black at dusk and dawn. Enormous flocks of starlings wheel, turn and swoop through the air, before dropping down like stones to rest for the night.


Albert Bridge, Belfast

River at sunset
View from the Albert Bridge in Belfast, Northern Ireland (Getty Images)

City murmurations don’t come much better than those at Albert Bridge in the centre of Belfast. On winter nights, hundreds of thousands of birds gather noisily together to roost.


Aberystwyth, Ceredigion

Starling murmuration around a pier.
Watch starlings come to roost as the sun sets ©Getty

This Welsh resort on Cardigan Bay offers another opportunity to see the birds – there’s even a local hotel called The Starling Cloud. Thousands of starlings fly in to roost under the town pier, engaging in a wonderful choreography of synchronised aerobatics. Find out more.


Westhay National Nature Reserve, Somerset

Nature reserve and pond
These former commercial peat workings have been very successfully turned into a major wildlife reserve. Dr Duncan Pepper for Geograph

This nature reserve is one of the best locations to view millions of starlings as they swirl and swoop across the landscape.


Fen Drayton Lakes, Cambridgeshire

Lake and ferns
Oxholme Lake, Fen Drayton Lakes RSPB for TL3469
Northern end of the reed fringed lake. Credit: Hugh Venables for Geograph

Nine thousand starlings begin their display at dusk over these beautiful lakes in Cambridgeshire.


Roly Smith
Roly SmithOutdoor writer & editor

Roly Smith is a freelance writer and editor, and the award-winning author of over 90 books on walking and the British countryside.


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