Our murmuration guide explains what a murmuration is, the science behind them and the best places to see starling murmurations in Britain.
What is a murmuration and why do they happen?
It’s been called the greatest wildlife spectacle in Britain and is remarkable to witness. Studies suggest that starlings congregate in these remarkable ‘murmurations’ to deter possible predators, which are confused by the swirling masses. Despite a recent drop in their overall population, you can still witness the mesmerising sight of thousands of birds performing their aerial dance at dawn and dusk.
What is the science behind starling murmurations?
The winter months are the best time to witness one of Britain’s greatest wildlife spectacles – but what is science behind these mass groupings of birds? Why do starlings group together? And how do they not crash into each other? Jess Price from the Sussex Wildlife Trust explains the science behind starling murmurations.
More related content:
- Starlings on the Somerset Levels
- Ellie Harrison: the plight of the starling in Britain
- Where do birds go to winter?
This incredible wildlife spectacle, known as murmuration, has interested scientists for years. Questions, such as why these great congregations occur and how starlings know when to turn in unison without colliding, have been the subject of much debate.
How does a murmuration work?
Starlings have extremely fast reaction times and can make changes in their flight direction in a split second. It is now generally thought that flocking helps to protect the starlings from predators. We all know the old saying that there’s safety in numbers.
Put simply, the more starlings there are in a flock the smaller chance each individual has of being caught by an airborne predator. Studies have even shown that individual starlings move around within the flock and try to minimise their time on the edge where they are most vulnerable.
They are gregarious birds, living in flocks for much of the year. But it is in winter, when starling numbers are boosted by migrant birds from colder parts of Europe that these aerial displays are at their breath-taking best.
From November to February, this amazing sight can be seen across Sussex and the rest of the UK. Brighton and Eastbourne are well known for their dramatic displays, but other costal towns such as Bognor, Chichester and Hastings can occasionally host magnificent displays too. Elsewhere in the country spectacular displays are regularly seen over the Somerset Levels, Gretna Green, Blackpool Pier and the Fens of Cambridgeshire.
How starling numbers have declined in the UK
Although most murmurations look enormous, these annual flocks are actually quite small compared to what they used to be. In the UK, starling numbers have declined by over 60% in the last 50 years causing this species to be red listed as a bird of high conservation concern.
It is likely that this population crash is due to the shortage of food and nesting sites that comes with more intensive agriculture, increased urban development and the reduction of outbuildings and open eaves on houses.
Where are the best places in the UK to watch a starling murmuration?
Middleton Moor, Derbyshire
Between October and March, up to 100,000 starlings swarm in from the surrounding countryside to the reed-fringed tailings lagoon of a Derbyshire fluorspar mine at Middleton Moor. Watch awe-inspiring masses fill the sky with ever-changing, abstract clouds.
West Pier Brighton, Sussex
Gretna Green, Dumfries and Galloway
There was a time when only eloping couples flocked to Gretna Green on the English/Scottish border. Nowadays, it’s the aerial visitors that attract most attention, with magical displays of up to 50,000 birds.
Ham Wall, Somerset
RSPB Ham Wall on the Avalon Marshes (pictured) is a starling hotspot. Thousands of birds – many of which migrate from the colder climates of Northern Europe – congregate in the roadbeds overnight.
Leighton Moss, Lancashire
The skies above the bittern-haunted reedbeds of RSPB Leighton Moss near Silverdale turn black at dusk and dawn. Enormous flocks of starlings wheel, turn and swoop through the air, before dropping down like stones to rest for the night.
Albert Bridge, Belfast
City murmurations don’t come much better than those at Albert Bridge in the centre of Belfast. On winter nights, hundreds of thousands of birds gather noisily together to roost.
This Welsh resort on Cardigan Bay offers another opportunity to see the birds – there’s even a local hotel called The Starling Cloud. Thousands of starlings fly in to roost under the town pier, engaging in a wonderful choreography of synchronised aerobatics. Find out more.
Westhay National Nature Reserve, Somerset
This nature reserve is one of the best locations to view millions of starlings as they swirl and swoop across the landscape.
Fen Drayton Lakes, Cambridgeshire
Nine thousand starlings begin their display at dusk over these beautiful lakes in Cambridgeshire.